Natural Resources Used in the Northwest Coast Region


Bear Grass or White Grass Herbaceous Plants Xerophyllum tenax Baskets; food 194
Camases or Indian Potatoes Herbaceous Plants Camassia Food 195
Coltsfoot Herbaceous Plants Petasites frigidus var. palmatus Medicine 195
Irises Herbaceous Plants Iris Cordage 195
Milkweeds Herbaceous Plants Asclepias Chewing gum 195
Soap plant Herbaceous Plants Chlorogalum pomeridianum Food; utensils; soap 195
Sweet cicely Herbaceous Plants Osmorhiza chilensis Medicine; food 196
Tiger lily or leopard lily Herbaceous Plants Lilium paradalinum subsp. Paradalinum Food 196
Wild tobaccos Herbaceous Plants Nicotiana Medicine; intoxicant 196
Sea Lettuce Marine Plants Ulva lactuca Food 194
Seaweed Marine Plants Porphyra lanceolata Food 194
Bracken Fern Mosses and Ferns Pteridium aquilinium Medicine; utensils 194
California Maiden-Hair Fern Mosses and Ferns Adlantum jordanii Baskets 194
Ferns Mosses and Ferns Petridophyta Medicine; utensils 194
Black oak Trees and shrubs Quercus kelloggii Food 199
California bay or laurel Trees and shrubs Umbellularia californica Food; medicine 197
California blackberry Trees and shrubs Rubus ursinus Food 197
California hazel Trees and shrubs Corylus cornuta Baskets; food; cordage; wood 197
California huckleberry or evergreen Trees and shrubs Vaccinium ovatum Food 198
California wild grape Trees and shrubs Vitis californica Food; baskets; cordage 198
Coast redwood Trees and shrubs Sequoia sempervirens Wood; baskets 198
Oregon oak Trees and shrubs Quercus garryana Food; medicine 199
Pacific madrone Trees and shrubs Arbutus menziesii Food; wood; clothing 200
Salmonberry Trees and shrubs Rubus spectabilis Food 200
Straggly gooseberry Trees and shrubs Ribes divaricatum var. pubiflorum Food 200
Sugar pine Trees and shrubs Pinus lambertiana Food; wood; adhesives 201
Tan oak or tanbark-oak Trees and shrubs Lithocarpus densiflorus Food; dye 199
Western choke-cherry Trees and shrubs Prunus virginiana var. demissa Food 201
Willows Trees and shrubs Salix Baskets; tools 201
Yerba santa or mountain balm Trees and shrubs Eriodictyon californicum Medicine 201


Crickets Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Anabrus Food 203
Grasshoppers Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Caelifera Food 203
Yellowjacket larvae Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Vespula and dolichovespula Food 203
Chinook or king salmon Anadromous Fishes Oncorynchus tshawytscha Food 204
Coho or silver salmon Anadromous Fishes Oncorynchus kisutch Food 204
Eulachon or candlefish Anadromous Fishes Thaleichthys pacificus Food; lighting 205
Pacific lamprey Anadromous Fishes Lampetra tridentata Food 205
Rainbow trout Anadromous Fishes Oncorynchus mykiss, formerly salmo gairdneri Food 205
American coot Marine birds and waterbirds Fulica americana Food 206
Cormorants Marine birds and waterbirds Phalacrocorax Food 206
Gray whale Marine mammals Eschrichtius robustus Food; raw materials 206
Sea lions and seals Marine mammals Otariidae and Phocidae Food 207
Redtail superperch Nearshore Fishes Amphistichus rhodoterus Food 203
Smelts Nearshore Fishes Osmeridae Food 203
Dentalium or tusk shell Shellfish Antalis pretiosum Money; regalia 202
Mussels Shellfish Mytilus californianus and trossulus Food; utensils 202
California quail Terrestrial birds Callipepla californica Food 206
Woodpeckers Terrestrial birds Picidae Regalia 206
Black-tailed deer or mule deer Terrestrial mammals Odocoileus hemionus columbianus Food; clothing 207
Roosevelt elk or wapiti Terrestrial mammals Cervus elaphus roosevelti Food; utensils; tools; leather 208


Obsidian Rocks and minerals Obsidian Tools; weapons 208
Steatite or soapstone Rocks and minerals Steatite Utensils 209


*Page refers to LP2009 (Kent Lightfoot and Otis Parrish, California Indians and Their Environment. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2009.)