Natural Resources Used in the Central Valley/Sierra Nevada Region


Bear Grass or White Grass Herbaceous Plants Xerophyllum tenax Baskets 308
Brodiaeas Herbaceous Plants Brodiaea; Dichelostemma; Triteleia Food 308
Canarygrasses Herbaceous Plants Phalaris Food 308
Cattails Herbaceous Plants Typha 308
Clarkias or Farewell-to-Spring Herbaceous Plants Clarkia Food 308
Clovers Herbaceous Plants Trifolium Food; regalia 309
Dandelions Herbaceous Plants Taraxacum Medicine 309
Dogbane or Indian hemp Herbaceous Plants Apocynum cannabinum Cordage 309
Goosefoots Herbaceous Plants Chenopodium Food 310
Ithuriel’s spear or Grass-nut Herbaceous Plants Triteleia laxa Food 310
Mariposa lilies Herbaceous Plants Calochortus Food 310
Milkweeds Herbaceous Plants Asclepias Cordage; medicine; food 310
Miner’s lettuce Herbaceous Plants Claytonia perfoliata Food 311
Monkeyflower Herbaceous Plants Mimulis guttatus Food; medicine 311
Native barley Herbaceous Plants Hordeum intercedens Food 311
Nightshades Herbaceous Plants Solanum Food; medicine 311
Red maids Herbaceous Plants Calandrinia cillata Food 311
Sedges Herbaceous Plants Carex Baskets 312
Soap plant Herbaceous Plants Chlorogalum pomeridianum Medicine; food; poison; soap 312
Tarweeds Herbaceous Plants Madia, Hemizonia and Blepharizonia Food; building material 312
Toloache or jimson weed Herbaceous Plants Datura wrightii Medicine; intoxicant 312
Tules or bulrushes Herbaceous Plants Schoenoplectus Building material; baskets; clothing; regalia; boats; food; fuel 313
Turkey mullein Herbaceous Plants Eremocarpus setigerus Poison 313
Wild oats Herbaceous Plants Avena Food 313
Wild onions Herbaceous Plants Allium Food 314
Wild strawberries Herbaceous Plants Fragaria Food 314
Wild sunflowers Herbaceous Plants Helianthus Food 314
Wild tobaccos Herbaceous Plants Nicotiana Intoxicant; medicine 313
California Maiden-Hair Fern Mosses and Ferns Adlantum jordanii Baskets 307
Big-leaf maple Trees and shrubs Acer macrophyllus Building material; clothing; food preservation 315
Black oak Trees and shrubs Quercus kelloggii Food; building material; fuel; tools; weapons 319
Blue oak Trees and shrubs Quercus douglasii Food; building material; fuel; tools; weapons 319
California bay or laurel Trees and shrubs Umbellularia californica Medicine; weapons 315
California blackberry Trees and shrubs Rubus ursinus Food 316
California buckeye Trees and shrubs Aesculus californica Food; tools 316
California hazel Trees and shrubs Corylus cornuta Food; basketry; weapons 316
California wild grape Trees and shrubs Vitis californica Food; cordage; cooking 316
Canyon live oak Trees and shrubs Quercus chrysolepis Food; building material; fuel; tools; weapons 320
Currants and gooseberries Trees and shrubs Ribes Food 322
Elderberries Trees and shrubs Sambucus Food; musical instruments; tobacco pipes 317
Foothill pine or gray pine Trees and shrubs Pinus sabiniana Food; fuel; building material; baskets; medicine 320
Incense-cedar Trees and shrubs Calocedrus decurrens Building material; boats; pigment; flavoring 317
Interior live oak Trees and shrubs Quercus wislizeni Food; building material; fuel; tools; weapons 320
Manzanitas Trees and shrubs Arctostaphylos Medicinel food; fuel; tools 317, 318
Mountain dogwood Trees and shrubs Cornus nuttallii Medicine 318
Oregon oak Trees and shrubs Quercus garryana Food; building material; fuel; tools; weapons 320
Ponderosa pine Trees and shrubs Pinus ponderosa Food; building material; fuel; baskets 321
Skunkbush Trees and shrubs Rhus trilobata Medicine 322
Sugar pine Trees and shrubs Pinus lambertiana Food; building material; food 321
Toyon Trees and shrubs Heteromeles arbutifolia Food 322
Valley oak or white oak Trees and shrubs Quercus lobata Food; building material; fuel; tools; weapons 320
Western redbud Trees and shrubs Cercis occidentalis Baskets 322
White fir Trees and shrubs Abies concolor Poison 322
Willows Trees and shrubs Salix Baskets; cordage; building material; fuel; clothing; weapons 322
Wormwoods or mugworts Trees and shrubs Artemisia Medicine 314
Yerba santa or mountain balm Trees and shrubs Eriodictyon californicum Medicine 323


Turtles Amphibians and Reptiles Testudines Food 329
Western rattlesnake Amphibians and Reptiles Crotalus viridis Poison 329
Chinook or king salmon Anadromous Fishes Oncorynchus tshawytscha Food 326
Pacific lamprey Anadromous Fishes Lampetra tridentata Food 325
Rainbow trout Anadromous Fishes Oncorynchus mykiss, formerly salmo gairdneri Food 329
Sturgeons Anadromous Fishes Acipenser Food 327
Crayfish Crustaceans and other water invertebrates Astacidae Food 323
Hardhead Freshwater fishes Mylopharodon conocephalus Food 328
Sacramento perch Freshwater fishes Archoplites interruptus Food 328
Sacramento splittail Freshwater fishes Pogonichthys macrolepidotus Food 328
Sacramento Sucker Freshwater fishes Catostomus occidentalis Food 328
Steelhead Freshwater fishes Oncorynchus irideus Food 329
Thicktail chub Freshwater fishes Gila crassicauda Food 329
Angleworms or earthworms Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Lumbricus Food 324
Ants Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Formicidae Food 324
California gall wasp Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Andricus quercuscalifornicus Medicine 324
Caterpillars Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Lepidoptera Food 324
Ceanothus silk moth and polyphemus moth Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Hyalophora euryalus and antheraea polyphemus Musical instruments 324
Grasshoppers Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Caelifera Food 324
Honeybee Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Apis mellifera Food 325
Horseflies Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Tabanidae Food 325
Salmon flies Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Plecoptera Food 325
Yellowjacket larvae Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Vespula and dolichovespula Food 325
American coot Marine birds and waterbirds Fulica americana Food; blankets 331
Ducks Marine birds and waterbirds Anatidae Food; baskets 330
Geese Marine birds and waterbirds Anatidae Food 330
Grebes Marine birds and waterbirds Podicipedidae Food 331
Loons Marine birds and waterbirds Gaviidae Food 331
Rails Marine birds and waterbirds Rallidae Food; blankets 331
Freshwater clams Shellfish Sphaeriidae Food; regalia 323
Freshwater pearl mussel and Western ridged mussel Shellfish Margaritifera margaritifera and Gonidea angulata Food; tools; lime 323
Band-tailed pigeon and mourning dove Terrestrial birds Patagioenas fasciata and zenaida macroura Food; weapons 331
Blackbirds Terrestrial birds Icteridae Food; baskets 331
California quail Terrestrial birds Callipepla californica Food; baskets; regalia 333
Crows and ravens Terrestrial birds Corvidae Regalia 331
Dusky grouse Terrestrial birds Dendragapus obscurus Weapons; musical instruments; clothing 332
Falcons Terrestrial birds Falconidae Regalia 332
Golden eagle Terrestrial birds Aquila chrysaetos Regalia; musical instruments 332
Greater roadrunner Terrestrial birds Geococcyx californianus Food; regalia; weapons 332
Hawks Terrestrial birds Accipitridae Regalia; weapons; fans 332
Jays Terrestrial birds Corvidae Food; regalia 333
Owls Terrestrial birds Tytonidae and strigidae Regalia 333
Woodpeckers Terrestrial birds Picidae Food; regalia 333
Yellow-billed magpie Terrestrial birds Pica nuttallii Regalia 334
Bears Terrestrial mammals Ursus Food; clothing; blankets; regalia 334
Black-tailed deer or mule deer Terrestrial mammals Odocoileus hemionus columbianus Food; weapons; tools; musical instruments; leather; clothing; blankets; sinew 335
Chipmunks Terrestrial mammals Tamias amoenus and minimus Food 334
Foxes Terrestrial mammals Vulpes and Urocyon Food(?); leather 335
Gophers Terrestrial mammals Geomyidae Food 335
Hares and rabbits Terrestrial mammals Leporidae Food; regalia; blankets; clothing 335
Pronghorn Terrestrial mammals Antilocapra americana Food; clothing; blankets; leather; containers (horn) 336
Squirrels Terrestrial mammals Sciuridae Food 337
Tule elk Terrestrial mammals Cervus elaphus nannodes Food; armor 337
Woodrats Terrestrial mammals Neotoma Food 337


Basalt Rocks and minerals Basalt Tools; weapons 337
Chert Rocks and minerals Chert Tools 337
Clay Rocks and minerals Clay Food additive; pigment; pottery 338
Hematite Rocks and minerals Hematite Pigment 338
Magnesite Rocks and minerals Magnesite Currency 338
Obsidian Rocks and minerals Obsidian Tools; weapons 338
Salt Rocks and minerals Sodium chloride Not given 338
Steatite or soapstone Rocks and minerals Steatite Tools; utensils; weapons 338


*Page refers to LP2009 (Kent Lightfoot and Otis Parrish, California Indians and Their Environment. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2009.)