Natural Resources Used in the Central Coast Region


Angelica Herbaceous Plants Angelica tomentosa Medicine; food; deodorant; toys 217
Brodiaeas Herbaceous Plants Brodiaea; Dichelostemma; Triteleia Food; regalia 218
California manroot Herbaceous Plants Marah fabaceus Poison 238
Camases or Indian potatoes Herbaceous Plants Camassia Medicine 218
Cattails Herbaceous Plants Typha Food; building material 217
Chia Herbaceous Plants Salvia columbariae Food 218
Clovers Herbaceous Plants Trifolium Food; medicine 218
Dogbane or Indian hemp Herbaceous Plants Apocynum cannabinum Cordage 219
Grasses Herbaceous Plants Fam. Poaceae Baskets; building material; regalia; furnishings 219
Irises Herbaceous Plants Iris Cordage; baskets; cooking; weapons; regalia; medicine; poisons; weapons 219
Mariposa lilies Herbaceous Plants Calochortus Food 219
Milkweeds Herbaceous Plants Asclepias Cordage; food 219
Mule ears Herbaceous Plants Wyethia Food 219
Peppergrasses Herbaceous Plants Lepidium Food 220
Rushes Herbaceous Plants Juncus Baskets; clothing; tools; building materials 220
Sedges Herbaceous Plants Carex Baskets; cordage; torches 220
Soap plant Herbaceous Plants Chlorogalum pomeridianum Poison; brushes; acorn processing; food; adhesives; soap 220
Tarweeds Herbaceous Plants Madia, Hemizonia and Blepharizonia Food 221
Tules or bulrushes Herbaceous Plants Schoenoplectus Building material; boats; food; clothing; baskets 221
Wild ginger Herbaceous Plants Asarum caudatum Medicine 221
Wild mustards Herbaceous Plants Brassicaceae Food 221
Wild oats Herbaceous Plants Avena Food 222
Wild onions Herbaceous Plants Allium Food 222
Wild strawberries Herbaceous Plants Fragaria Food 222
Wild tobaccos Herbaceous Plants Nicotiana Intoxicant 222
Yerba buena Herbaceous Plants Satureja douglasii Medicine 223
Kelps Marine Plants Laminariales Food; medicine; cordage 216
Sea Palm Marine Plants Postelsia palmaeformis Food 216
Seaweeds Marine Plants Porphyra Food; salt 216
Ferns Mosses and Ferns Petridophyta Baskets; building material; deodorant; piercing retainers 213
Alders Trees and shrubs Alnus Medicine; weapons; musical instruments; baskets 223
Black oak Trees and shrubs Quercus kelloggii Food; musical instruments 227
California buckeye Trees and shrubs Aesculus californica Food; tools; weapons; poison 224
California hazel Trees and shrubs Corylus cornuta Food; building material; weapons 224
California huckleberry or evergreen Trees and shrubs Vaccinium ovatum Food 226
Coast live oak Trees and shrubs Quercus agrifolia Food 227
Elderberries Trees and shrubs Sambucus Food; musical instruments; tobacco pipes; medicine 225
Foothill pine or gray pine Trees and shrubs Pinus sabiniana Food; medicine; adhesives; baskets 228
Holly-leafed cherry or Islay Trees and shrubs Prunus illicifolia Food 225
Manzanitas Trees and shrubs Arctostaphylos Food; tools; weapons; medicine 226
Poison oak Trees and shrubs Toxicodendron diversilobum Medicine; dye; baskets 229
Saltbush Trees and shrubs Atriplex californica Soap; food 229
Tan oak or tanbark-oak Trees and shrubs Lithocarpus densiflorus Food; dye; building material 228
Thimbleberry Trees and shrubs Rubus parviflorus Food; cooking 229
Toyon Trees and shrubs Heteromeles arbutifolia Food 229
Valley oak or white oak Trees and shrubs Quercus lobata Food; building material 228
Western redbud Trees and shrubs Cercis occidentalis Baskets 229
Wild rose Trees and shrubs Rosa californica Food; weapons 230
Willows Trees and shrubs Salix Baskets; clothing; medicine 230
Wormwoods or mugworts Trees and shrubs Artemisia Medicine 230
Yerba santa or mountain balm Trees and shrubs Eriodictyon californicum Medicine 231


Lizards Amphibians and Reptiles Sauria Food 240
Salamanders Amphibians and Reptiles Caudata Poison; medicine 240
Snakes Amphibians and Reptiles Serpentes Food 240
Turtles Amphibians and Reptiles Testudines Food 241
Chinook or king salmon Anadromous Fishes Oncorynchus tshawytscha Food 239
Coho or silver salmon Anadromous Fishes Oncorynchus kisutch Food 239
Rainbow trout Anadromous Fishes Oncorynchus mykiss, formerly salmo gairdneri Food 239
Sturgeons Anadromous Fishes Acipenser Food 239
Crabs Crustaceans and other water invertebrates Cancer antennarius and c. productus Food 234
Gooseneck barnacle Crustaceans and other water invertebrates Pollicipes polymerus Food 234
Sea anemones Crustaceans and other water invertebrates Anthopleura Food 235
Sea urchins Crustaceans and other water invertebrates Strongylocentrotus Food 235
Sacramento Sucker Freshwater fishes Catostomus occidentalis Food 240
Ants Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Pogonomyrmex Medicine 235
Army worms Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Noctuidae Food 235
California gall wasp Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Andricus quercuscalifornicus Dye; medicine; dental hygiene 235
Caterpillars Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Lepidoptera Food 236
Ceanothus silk moth and polyphemus moth Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Hyalophora euryalus and antheraea polyphemus Musical instruments 236
Grasshoppers Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Caelifera Food 236
Western black widow spider Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Latrodectus hesperus Poison 236
Yellowjacket larvae Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates Vespula and dolichovespula Food 236
American coot Marine birds and waterbirds Fulica americana Food 241
Cormorants Marine birds and waterbirds Phalacrocorax Food 241
Ducks Marine birds and waterbirds Anatidae Food; clothing; regalia 241
Geese Marine birds and waterbirds Anatidae Food; clothing 242
Gulls Marine birds and waterbirds Larus Food 242
Pelicans Marine birds and waterbirds Pelecanus Food; clothing; regalia; weapons; musical instruments 242
Gray whale Marine mammals Eschrichtius robustus Food 245
Harbor seal Marine mammals Phoca vitulina Blankets 246
Sea lions and seals Marine mammals Otariidae and Phocidae Food; bedding 246
Sea otter Marine mammals Enhydra lutris Clothing; blankets 246
Cabezon Nearshore Fishes Scorpaenichthys marmoratus Food 237
Pacific herring Nearshore Fishes Clupea pallasi Food 237
Rockfishes Nearshore Fishes Sebastes Food 237
Sharks and rays Nearshore Fishes Subclass Elasmobranchii Food 237
Silversides Nearshore Fishes Atherinopsidae Food 238
Smelts Nearshore Fishes Osmeridae Food 238
Surfperches Nearshore Fishes Embiotocidae Food 238
Abalones Shellfish Haliotis Food; regalia; tools 231
Black turban snail and brown turban snail Shellfish Chlorostoma funebralis and brunnea Food 231
California oyster Shellfish Ostrea conchaphila Food 232
Chitons Shellfish Cryptochiton stelleri and Katharina tunicata Food 232
Clams Shellfish Bivalvia Food; currency; regalia 232
Limpets Shellfish Lottidae Food 233
Mussels Shellfish Mytilus californianus and trossulus Food; tools; utensils 233
Olive snail Shellfish Callianax biplicata Food; currency; regalia 234
Band-tailed pigeon and mourning dove Terrestrial birds Patagioenas fasciata and zenaida macroura Food 243
Blackbirds Terrestrial birds Icteridae Food; baskets; regalia 243
California condor Terrestrial birds Gymnogyps californianus Clothing; regalia 243
Crows and ravens Terrestrial birds Corvidae Regalia 244
Golden eagle Terrestrial birds Aquila chrysaetos Regalia 244
Goldfinches Terrestrial birds Carduelis Regalia 244
Hawks Terrestrial birds Accipitridae Weapons; regalia 244
Quails Terrestrial birds Odontophoridae Food; baskets 244
Woodpeckers Terrestrial birds Picidae Regalia 245
Bears Terrestrial mammals Ursus Food; blankets; pets 246
Black-tailed deer or mule deer Terrestrial mammals Odocoileus hemionus columbianus Food; clothing; toys; tools; weapons; hair styling 247
Bobcat and mountain lion Terrestrial mammals Lynx rufus and puma concolor Blankets; food 248
Botta’s pocket gopher Terrestrial mammals Thomomys bottae Food; blankets 248
Coyote and foxes Terrestrial mammals Canidae Hides; food 248
Hares and rabbits Terrestrial mammals Leporidae Food; clothing; blankets 248
Pronghorn Terrestrial mammals Antilocapra americana Food 248
Raccoon Terrestrial mammals Procyon lotor Food; hides; pets 249
Roosevelt elk or wapiti Terrestrial mammals Cervus elaphus roosevelti Tools; weapons; utensils; hides 248
Skunks Terrestrial mammals Mephitidae Meat; hair styling; medicine; hides 249
Squirrels Terrestrial mammals Sciuridae Food; hides; tools; pets 249
Tule elk Terrestrial mammals Cervus elaphus nannodes Tools; weapons; utensils; hides 248
Woodrats Terrestrial mammals Neotoma Food 249


Asphaltum or bitumen Rocks and minerals Asphaltum Adhesives; chewing gum 250
Clay Rocks and minerals Clay Leavening; hair styling; tobacco pipes 250
Magnesite Rocks and minerals Magnesite Currency 250
Obsidian Rocks and minerals Obsidian Tools; weapons 250
Salt Rocks and minerals Sodium chloride Seasoning; preservative 250


*Page refers to LP2009 (Kent Lightfoot and Otis Parrish, California Indians and Their Environment. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2009.)